Night-shift workers should avoid drinking coffee if they wish to improve their sleep, according to research published in the journal Sleep Medicine. A new study led by Julie Carrier, a UniversitÃ de MontrÃ al psychology professor and a researcher at the affiliated HÃ pital du SacrÃ -Coeur Sleep Disorders Centre, has found the main byproduct of coffee, caffeine, interferes with sleep and this side-effect worsens as people age. "Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant to counteract sleepiness, yet it has detrimental effects on the sleep of night-shift workers who must slumber during the day, just as their biological clock sends a strong wake-up signal, " says Carrier. "The older you get, the more affected your sleep will be by coffee." Twenty-four men and women participated in the study: one group was aged 20 to 30, while a second group was aged 45 to 60. Everyone spent two sleepless nights in lab rooms before being allowed to sleep. "We all know someone who claims to sleep like a baby after drinking an espresso.
For children with obstructive sleep apnea, standard care often includes a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. But researchers at Saint Louis University say further research is needed to determine if surgery is the best option for these patients. "We know surgery is associated with improvements in children with sleep apnea, but this research will be the first to allow us to investigate whether or not the surgery causes those improvements, " says Ron Mitchell, M.D., professor of otolaryngology at Saint Louis University and the research study's principal investigator. "In the future, the information we gather from this study may help us know when to recommend surgery immediately and when it is most appropriate to wait and see whether the child will grow out of the problem. This will allow us to use healthcare resources more effectively." Saint Louis University and SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center are currently participating in the ChildHood AdenoTonsillectomy (CHAT) study, the first research study to compare the outcomes of children who undergo surgery versus those who are monitored and receive medical treatment, such as nasal spray as needed.
Extended Therapy for Blood Clot Prevention Yields Greater Benefits in Hip/Knee Surgery (#8587) Patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) or total hip replacement (THR) surgeries may experience better outcomes if they receive extended therapy for the prevention of thrombosis (blood clots). Researchers from the University of Ottawa, ON, and Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical found that 2, 140 patients undergoing TKR or THR who received short-duration (â 14 days) thromboprophylaxis experienced three times as many venous thromboembolism events, two times as many DVT events, six times as many pulmonary embolism events, and four times more major bleeding events than the 1, 055 patients who received extended-duration therapy (â 15 days). Data suggest that, in patients undergoing TKR or THR surgery, extended-duration therapy for the prevention of thrombosis is clinically beneficial. High Incidence of VTE in Lung Transplant Recipients (#8579) Patients who have had a lung transplant may be at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE).
CPAP Therapy Associated With Slight Weight Gain (#7833) Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a common therapy for sleep apnea, is associated with a slight but temporary weight gain in patients. Researchers from the University of Toledo Medical College in Ohio followed 152 patients who underwent CPAP therapy for 1 month. Of the patients, 119 (78 percent) gained an average of 3 lbs. Weight gain occurred in 81 percent of men and 73 percent of women. A subgroup of 71 patients who remained on therapy demonstrated gain in mass at 4 weeks, which did not persist at 6 months. Researchers speculate that the weight gain is due to increased vascular volume. Tonsil Size May Predict Sleep Apnea in Kids (#8090) Children with large tonsils may be at an increased risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Researchers from the Philippines assessed the link between obesity and OSAHS in 285 children who snored. Of the patients, 118 patients (41 percent) were found to be obese.
Shift work exposures can accelerate metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among the large population of middle-aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT) is a common abnormality of health examinations in middle-aged working populations. It is unavoidable nowadays that a large number of asymptomatic workers with e-ALT may be asked to do rotating shift work on 24 h production lines. In some previous studies, e-ALT and shift work had been independently assessed for their associations with MetS, which is associated with cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death among working populations. In terms of workplace health management and job arrangements, a five-year follow-up study assessing the association between rotating shift work (RSW) and MetS development was conducted in Taiwan for male workers. In some previous studies, e-ALT and shift work had been independently assessed for their associations with MetS, which is associated with cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death among working populations.
The Consumption Of Melatonin, A Natural Hormone Secreted By The Own Human Body, Regulates Sleep Better Than Somniferous
Melatonin, a natural hormone secreted by the own human body, is an excellent sleep regulator expected to replace somniferous, which are much more aggressive, to correct the sleep/wakefulness pace when human biological clock becomes altered. Those are the conclusions of a research work carried out by DarÃ o AcuÃ a-Castroviejo and Germaine Escames, professors of the Institute of Biotechnology (Biomedical Research Centre of the University of Granada), who have been carrying out a complete analysis of the properties of this natural hormone secreted by the pineal gland for years. Melatonin (frequently called the 'hormone of darkness', because the organism produces it at night) is currently being used by the pharmaceutical industry to design derivative synthetic medicines, a very interesting therapeutic tool for the treatment of sleep alterations. Not in vain, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) authorized in 2007 the use of melatonin for this type of therapies, after years of debate about the convenience of this measure.
Women with asthma are more anxious, find it harder to sleep and are more tired during the day than their male counterparts, but nevertheless tend to be better at following their treatment, reveals a thesis from the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg in close collaboration with Sahlgrenska University Hospital. "Men and women with asthma differ biologically, socially, culturally and psychologically, which affects their quality of life, " says Rosita Sundberg, a doctoral student at the Sahlgrenska Academy and allergy coordinator at Sahlgrenska University Hospital. "It's important that we take account of this when caring for teenagers and young adults with asthma." Even as teenagers and young adults, women with asthma feel worse than their male counterparts. In one of the studies covered by the thesis, just over a hundred men and women around the age of 20 with severe or moderate asthma responded to a questionnaire on how their day-to-day lives are affected by the illness.
A widely used test for measuring nighttime blood pressure may interfere with patients' sleep, thus affecting the results of the test, reports a study in an upcoming issue of Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN). "Blood pressure (BP), measured during sleep correlates better with heart attacks and strokes compared to blood pressure measured in the doctor's office, " explains Rajiv Agarwal, MD (Indiana University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Indianapolis). "However, if blood pressure measurement disturbs sleep, then it may weaken the relationship between 'sleeping BP' and these cardiovascular events." Along with his data-manager, Robert Light, BS (also of Indiana University), Agarwal analyzed the results of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in 103 patients with kidney disease. This ambulatory blood pressure monitoring test is commonly performed to assess variations in blood pressure from daytime to nighttime. Blood pressure normally "dips" at night when it doesn't, the cardiovascular risks of high blood pressure are much greater.
Hours of analysing snoring sounds have paid off for a group of researchers from The University of Queensland and Brisbane's Princess Alexandra Hospital. Led by Dr Udantha Abeyratne from the School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, the team has developed a non-invasive way of diagnosing Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Caused by the collapse of the upper air passage during sleep, OSA is Australia's most common sleep disorder, affecting approximately 800, 000 people. Common symptoms include snoring, waking suddenly and daytime sleepiness and, if left untreated, it can lead to stroke, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. "OSA has snoring as the earliest symptom; almost all patients snore, " Dr Abeyratne said. "We have developed several techniques to diagnose OSA using snoring sounds alone. "Sounds are acquired through non-contact recording devices, and features are extracted. "At present we are capable of screening OSA with greater than 90 percent sensitivity and specificity.
Chronobiology International - Informa Healthcare's journal on how biological rhythms affect the systems of living things - has published a 14-year study of more than 7000 subjects which concludes that shift-work constitutes an independent risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism. Modern industrialization, consumer expectations and globalization have led to the widespread adoption of round-the-clock operations in many industries throughout the world. This has resulted in an increased proportion of the population routinely engaged in shiftwork. An association between shift-work and cardiovascular diseases has been widely reported. Disturbed circadian rhythms, sleep and lifestyle problems and increased stress have been implicated as possible risk factors for many serious diseases. This study highlights a previously unrecognized risk for the millions of people who work atypical shift schedules. "It has long been known that sleep debt has a harmful impact on carbohydrate metabolism and endocrine function, " says Michael Smolensky, Co-Editor of Chronobiology International.