Health and Fitness

Dinar and Dirham in Indonesia

The Gold Dinar remained the official Islamic currency until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1924, when it disappeared for 77 years. Indonesia as a country with highest muslim population in the world must have a big history about Islam economic. And it's actually right. Islamic currency had ever been exist in Indonesia. Nowadays most of Indonesian people do not know that Dinar and Dirham were ever made and applied in Indonesia as a legal money more than 600 years ago. Since the 14th centuries, the ancestors had been familiar with both kind of money. In Ying Yai Sheng Lan book, written by Ma Huan, the office clerk and translator of Admiral Cheng Ho, during his visiting to North Sumatera (1405-1433), said that Samudera Pasai used Dinar with 70% gold, and Keueh made from tin (1 Dinar = 1600 Keuehs). As we know, Cheng Ho was a voyager. He was born around 1371 in China's southwestern Yunan Province (just north of Laos) with the name Ma Ho. Ma Ho's father was a Muslim hajji (who had made a pilgrimage to Mecca) and the family name of Ma was used by Muslims in representation of the word Mohammed.

Intellectual Leopold Bloom Versus Intellectual Stephen Dedalus

Did Bloom discover common factors of similarity between their respective like and unlike reactions to experience? Both were sensitive to artistic impressions musical in preference to plastic or pictorial. Both preferred a continental to an insular manner of life, a cisatlantic to a transatlantic place of residence. Both indurated by early domestic training and an inherited tenacity of heterodox resistance professed their disbelief in many orthodox religious, national, social and ethical doctrines. Both admitted the alternately stimulating and obtunding influence of hetero sexual magnetism .( U 586) The above quotation from Ulysses represents part of similarities and dissimilarities of the two protagonists of the novel very accurately. Thus, James Joyce himself seems to be interested in comparing these two together. Although, Joyce substitutes the two names as stoom and Blephen to suggest the possibility of their final unification of souls, he at the same time believes in their individual differences.

Karma In Today's World

No matter how rational and practical the world becomes by the day, there were, are, and will be reservations against exploring the shades of grey. Karma, i.e, what goes around comes around, is a principle which most of us agree to, but, only a few of us actually follow. Well, I figure that there are some more basic truths of life than Karma, which actually fit rather better in the mean and practical scheme of things; we are all so habitual of living in. For instance, let's start off with the downtrodden, who don't have houses or shelter, those who live in the slums, the people who don't have enough to suffice their physiological requirements of hunger, thirst etc. which are considered to be the most basic in the hierarchy of needs. These people have no amenities, no social life and not enough bucks to raise their children properly, to save the upcoming generations, the misery. Leave alone the people who've lived there, supposedly, to an extent, due to karma, but, what sin have those young kids committed who're born and raised in the slums, or in other extremely poor financial conditions?

Festivals In India - Never Ending Culture Of India

India is a land of colourful festivals. Festivals in India are celebrated with zest, passion and devotions as it is a part of life. It is celebrated in commemoration to religious, historical and coming of fresh seasons. The colour, dance, food, gifts and sports reflect the various lifestyles of India. Festivals are celebrated in every corner of India by diverse communities. One can find festivals in India through the year and season. The coming of Spring season or harvest season or changing season is a reason to cheer and make merriment and it is well expressed through festivals. In festive season, people send wishes to their loved one, cook delicious sweets and cookies, and also worship their Gods and Goddess to shower their blissful grace. Many festivals are celebrated in honour of their God and religious cult. The festival of Janmasthami is celebrated by Hindus because of Lord Vishnu's reincarnation on earth as Lord Krishna. Deepawali is celebrated when Lord Rama return home after being victorious upon Ravana.

Chinese Masks And Culture

Even in this day and age Chinese Masks are used within two main elements of Chinese culture. The New Year masks which are worn by Chinese people to welcome the new year throughout the world. And the Opera masks which are painted and drawn on the faces of the actors and singers and are used to depict the traits and characteristics of the role each actor is playing. Chinese New Years masks are not seen at any other time of the year. The exciting and extravagant Chinese New Year can last for a week or longer and ends with the Yuanxiao which is a lantern festival. The masks used depict the moods and emotion of enjoyment and happiness which tie in with the ceremonies and festival. Chinese people typically will buy presents, buy new clothes and cook expensive meals for the new year period. Throughout this period many works of art and crafts like the Chinese masks in their rich and vivid colors are worn and displayed to show the nature of the festivity. Chinese Masks are made up of numerous materials like stones and metals, leather and cloth, paper and grass and more.

Beginning Eras of Anime Japanese Animation

Anime, or Japanese Animation, had its start in the beginning of the 20th century. Anime is Japan's competitor against the high-budget Hollywood in America; Anime allowed Japan to create films under tight budgets and without location restrictions. First Era of Anime Recently discovered in 2005, the earliest known Anime was created around 1917; it consisted of 50 frames sketched onto a strip of celluloid. The clip is about 3 seconds in length and depicts a young boy donning a sailor suit writing the kanji for moving pictures (katsudou shashin) on a board. He then turns toward the viewer, removes his hat and salutes. It is unknown who created the clip. This is one of the few complete clips that have survived from this period of animation. One of the reasons for the demise of most clips was due to these reels being sold to smaller cinemas - after they had their run - and being disassembled to be sold as strips or frames. One of the pioneers of early animation was Kitayama Seitaro; he used a chalkboard method technique and eventually moved onto paper animation, sometimes using pre-printed backgrounds.

Frederick Douglass - Breaking the Chains of Slavery to Freedom unto Liberating Others

Frederick Douglass was one of the foremost leaders of the abolitionist movement, who fought to end slavery within the United States in the decades prior to the Civil War. Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, later known as Frederick Douglass, was born a slave in Tuckahoe, Talbot County, Maryland, near Hillsborough. He had no accurate knowledge of his age. He was separated from his mother, Harriet Bailey, when he was still an infant.as she died when Douglass was about 7. The identity of Douglass' father is obscure: Douglass once stated that his father was a white man, perhaps refering to his owner, Aaron Anthony; but later said he knew nothing of his father's identity. Although Douglas never learnt the exact date of his birth, he clearly remembers the details of his early life as a slave on a plantation in Mayland. At the age of 6, Douglass was separated from his grandmother and moved to the Wye House plantation, where Anthony worked as overseer. When Anthony died, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld.

Africa and Nutrition

We have all heard the expression that breakfast is the most important meal of the day, but many children in Africa barely get to eat even one substantial portion of food in a day. Food is a basic means of survival and the lack of it is at the root of many, many other problems. Being starving prevents people from performing even the most basic of daily functions adversely affecting many aspects of society. The Situation in Africa Africa is a continent with many problems and it is usually the children who bear the brunt of these troubles. South Africa is one of the continent's most successful countries and yet 12% of children in the country are classified as starving or drastically underweight. This helpless section of the population goes without daily meals, affecting their concentration, health and even their future. Starvation and its consequences lead to 95 in every 1000 children under the age of five dying in South Africa each year, be it from malnutrition, disease or the pure desperation and dangers of having to scrounge for food on the streets.

A History of the Mythology of God

The question of God is a difficult one. There is no clear definition and many threads get woven into the search of God. However, it is important to go over brief history of mythology of God, the religious influence, and now scientific influence in 21 st century. Here's a brief review about the history of mythology of God that may influence our understanding about the new concepts in search of god. Before Judaic Christian era, with the invention of agriculture in Turkey, human society changed from hunter gathers to farmers. During this era, the God was perceived as female Goddess. Archeologist Maria Gimbutas studied how this culture of the Goddess spread. The farmers spread out from Turkey moving east into Asia and west towards the Atlantic. As the farmers spread out from Turkey, they displaced the hunter gathers that lived on the land first. What is most interesting about the civilization of the Goddess, is the level of violence. Maria Gimbutas found little evidence of violence in the first towns the early farmers built.

Metamorphosis of Ethnic Roman Costumes

History permeates every corner of the ancient city of Rome known as the eternal city. Their culture is the basis for todays society, culture and fashion. Much of the Roman clothing culture is based on the Greek fashion. They were also influenced by the Egyptians during the middle of 200 BC, but later on they developed their own clothing style, known as the Roman Clothing. To Romans, clothing was not just a means of covering their body, but it was highly symbolic exhibiting an indication of their class, social status, age gender, and occupation. They wanted to depict everyone around them; and to the rest of the world, what their place was in the society. It varied in color, style, and adornments indicating the persons position in the Empire. In the later years, these garments became appealing garments for the modern fashion aficionados. As time slipped, there was progress in the weaving methods, but the basic pattern of garments remained the same. Traditional Roman Closet: Tunics and Togas: Ancient Romans wore two types of basic garments, tunics and togas.

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