Hamlet is one of William Shakespeare's greatest and most popular of plays, a tragedy, believed to have been written between AD 1599 and 1601. The play is set in Elsinore, Denmark. Hamlet is the son of the late king who, as the plot of the play uncovers, has been recently murdered by his brother, Hamlet's uncle, who then marries Hamlet's mother Gertrude, the late king's wife. The deceased king, himself called Hamlet, appears as a Ghost, informs the son in some detail how he was murdered by his brother, the latter's uncle Claudius, and calls for revenge. Although Hamlet agrees, he is skeptical of the apparition and feigns madness as a means of averting suspicion while he embarks on a quest to check the veracity of the information vouchsafed to him. While the plot and dramatic structure of the play revolves around the unique characterization of Hamlet the protagonist, it explores themes of treachery, corruption, madness, grief, loss and their implications. It throws up a complex mix of religious, philosophical, political and psychological perspectives that critics have endlessly analyzed and argued about during the last four centuries.
The arena of subjective, inner realities is perhaps best embodied in the art movement known as Surrealism. The First Surrealist Manifesto, authored by Andrй Breton in 1924, emphasized the value of the unconscious. According to Breton and the group of artists which shared his views, the traditional didactic purposes of art were no longer valid. Art's purpose was not to instruct or to inspire but to research and to record the elusive truths lurking below the conscious mind. In order to access this valuable information, an alternative to normal, waking consciousness would have to be induced. This was referred to as automatism and was achieved by shutting down the mind with fatigue, alcohol, drugs, starvation or sleeplessness. When the images of the true self emerged, the artist did not exercise control over them, but functioned as an almost mechanical recording device. The resulting visions were often nightmarish rather than beautiful. For Breton and other Surrealists, this style of life and art represented freedom from moral, aesthetic and rational constraints.
The Greenland Effect Micha'el had given me much to think about, and that is what I was doing, thinking, and thinking, and thinking (as the voices of the angelic forces started to fade), and here are my last thoughts: The Greenland Effect (Notes: one of the reasons for an ice age is the change in Earth's atmospheric composition, I am not sure how all this works, although, I know our atmosphere simply gets thinner and fades into outer space, and water vapor is mixed with all this, and the mixture comes out as air, whatever, it does protect the life of earth, and earth protects the life of its human beings, on it, like white on rice. So all this was making some sense, the air, the water, the earth, the souls on it, and my journey, and I suppose the ultimate understanding was: everything works together, or not at all, it tips the balance sooner or later.) Thoughts after talking to Micha'el Phenomenon of the Ice Age The world has its phenomenon's and they all come to life in men, dreams and visions, and if he lives long enough, his realities.
Have you ever gone to bed one night and wondered just where the day went? Well could you imagine waking up to discover that eleven days had vanished completely? That is just what happened in 1752 when the entire inhabitants of Britain and America went to bed on Wednesday 2 September, only to awake on Thursday 14 September. However, it wasn't an epidemic of sleepy sickness or even a mass dose of laziness that kept the entire populace in bed but merely the authorities attempting to synchronise with the rest of the world by adopting the Gregorian calendar. The Julian calendar (named after Julius Caesar) had been in use since biblical times but was finally phased out throughout Europe in the 1582 but it took the resolute Brits and Americans another two hundred years to follow suit. And if the painter Hogarth is to be believed the populace didn't take too kindly to it either, with people taking to the street demanding the return of their missing 11 days and even reports of rioting. Then why change?
Africans have very ancient cultures passed on from generation to generation for thousands of years. In the teachings of traditional African cultures, everything in the world is inhabited by spirit; we're all essentially spirits with a physical form. As spirit and matter, we all have the ability to naturally slide into ecstasy or "fly" into the realms that spirits inhabit and to experience these "other worlds" with all the senses of the ordinary physical realm. One doesn't try to be spiritual, he or she just is... Spirituality and physicality are meant to go together. These two are in-separable. When spirituality is ignored, physicality is misused, and when physicality is denied, spirituality is corrupted. But when spirituality and physicality are nurtured as inseparable, we experience "heaven on earth." A life lived on earth with a conscious effort to connect spirit and physical form is a life fully lived. The sexual union between a man and woman is believed to be a beautiful thing because it whets our appetite for creating life-physically and spiritually.
Richard Wright, grandson of a slave was born and spent the first years of his life on a plantation near Natchez, Mississippi. The family's extreme poverty forced them to move to Memphis, Tennessee, in 1913 when Richard was six years old. Soon after moving, his father, a former sharecropper, abandoned the family, leaving his mother to support them alone. His family moved to Jackson, Mississippi to live with relatives. Wright's entire life was fraught with such continual moving from town to town and staying with relatives, being boarded in orphanages, and hostels, incurring cleavages with family members and teachers, fighting incessantly with bullies, white street gangs, as much as his constant fight against hunger, hypocrisy, parental neglect and the trauma of living in a household of multiple sick members and coping with the drudgery of Christian fundamentalism So when at the age of 15, Wright started expiating his feelings by writing his first story "The Voodoo of Hell's Half-Acre", and it was published in Southern Register, a local black newspaper, he had little support and encouragement from his family He had to develop a high level of motivation and daring, to go ahead forging notes with the signatures of whites to borrow books from the library for him to satisfy his unquenchable thirst for great literature.
One great artist named Krishan khanna when appointed as a jury member to judge and select art works for national award, awarded himself; later there were debates on this conspiracy. This happens in India only and still today it's happening. Indian national academy called 'Lalit Kala Academy' does not confer national award to creative artists but to those who does not create. The petty bourgeoisie class that surfaced after independence never went for 'critical and new'; it became modern by merely following the thoughts and ideas produced by great artists and thinkers of the west. It rejected the ancient Indian wisdom and virtues, art, literature and philosophy by just saying that it's all produce of Brahmancal culture. Western intellectuals never rejected their heritage and culture; throughout the ages we see them from time to time going back to Greekan philosophy for newness since they believe that Greek is their mother. No debate is complete without talking Greek philosophy whether it is postmodern philosophers or modern philosophers.
William Bartram, the famous botanist and explorer from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned by the English aristocrats to collect, identify and record the plant and animal life growing in the English colonies. The English colonies were acquired from Spain, after the Spanish settlements were conquered and abandoned to the English. John Bartram, the father of William Bartram, accompanied his son on several early, exploratory missions, and his father helped to secure a financial sponsorship of William Bartram on his interesting but dangerous exploits into the land of the Indians, alligators, snakes and bears. Bartram lived in the wild during much of the time in American jungles living congenially among the Indians, and even in the homes of settlers who found him a fascinating guest. The English settlers generously opened their doors of hospitality to him; wining and dining him and treating him locally and physically with herbs and medicinal remedies, when on several occasions, he became deathly sick or injured.
With the 2008 release of the new Indian Jones movie hitting the screens, there has been renewed interest in the subject of crystal skulls. Skulls represent humanity's foremost symbol of death and they are powerful icons to cultures all over the globe. There have been many replicas of human skulls that have been polished out of a single crystal of quartz rock. Some are ancient, some classified as "old" and others are more contemporary. A few have been made from pure quartz and are absolutely clear while a rare few are also life-sized. Some are milky in color, at least one is of rose quartz and still another is amethyst. Thirteen crystal skulls of apparently ancient origin have been found in parts of Mexico, Central America and South America, comprising one of the most fascinating subjects of 20th Century archeology. The most widely celebrated and mysterious of these crystal skulls is the Mitchell-Hedges Skull, the manufacture of which is quite remarkable. The Mitchell-Hedges Crystal Skull It is very similar in form to an actual human skull, even featuring a fitted removable jawbone.
Although Tiki culture was introduced to American consciousness in the 1930s, it was in 1959 when Hawaii was made the last state of the US that interest in Hawaiian and Polynesian culture became widespread. Tiki-themed restaurants, hut bars, artwork, music as well as every day things such as poles, mugs, tiki masks, torches and knick-knacks surged in popularity. Tiki was thus integrated into the American way of life. These days, we are seeing a rebirth of interest in Hawaiian Tiki as younger generations come to know about the exotic culture of the South Pacific that are symbolized by the eye-catching artifacts associated with Tiki traditions. This is a good opportunity to revisit the Tiki gods and myths surrounding them which ultimately are the basis of all things Tiki, to give a better understanding of Hawaiian and Polynesian culture. The Four Tiki Gods in Hawaiian mythology All over the South Pacific, ancient traditions woven into songs and stories speak of gods who had the strengths and weaknesses of men and controlled nature's forces.