A researcher who led an Australian study that found adults aged 70 and over who are classed as overweight under the current Body Mass Index (BMI) definition are less likely to die over a 10 year period than their normal weight counterparts is calling for a revision of BMI for this group so it more accurately reflects lowest mortality risk. He suggests people who live to their 70s and beyond may have a different relationship between body fat and risks to health than younger people. You can read about the findings of the ten-year research project online in the 28th January issue of The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. The study was led by Winthrop Professor Leon Flicker, Director Western Australian Centre for Health and Ageing (WACHA) at The University of Western Australia. BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple ratio of weight to height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults: it is widely used in research and also in clinical practice, for instance in helping to explain concepts of obesity and overweight to patients.
Overeating in mice triggers a molecule once considered to be only involved in detecting and fighting viruses to also destroy normal metabolism, leading to insulin resistance and setting the stage for diabetes. The new study, led by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), specifically links together the immune system and metabolism, a pairing increasingly suspected in diseases that include - in addition to diabetes - heart disease, fatty liver, cancer, and stroke. Understanding how to regulate the molecule through targeted drugs or nutrients could eventually change the way these diseases are prevented and treated in humans. The study will publish in the February 5, 2010, issue of Cell. "When mice eat a normal diet, this molecule called PKR is silent, " said senior author GГ khan Hotamisligil, chair of the HSPH Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases. "However, if a cell containing PKR is bombarded with too many nutrients, PKR grabs other immune system molecules that respond to this food attack and organizes a firing squad to shoot down normal processes, leading to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction.
A new study from the US showed that two popular weight loss methods, one using the obesity treatment weight-loss pill orlistat plus a low-fat diet and another just based on a low carb diet were equally effective at helping people lose significant amounts of weight, but in a surprising twist found that that the low carb diet was much better at helping them lower blood pressure. Researchers from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center and Duke University Medical Center, both in Durham, North Carolina, reported their findings in a study published online on 25 January in the Archives of Internal Medicine. The Department of Veteran Affairs paid for the research. Lead author Dr William S. Yancy Jr, an associate professor of medicine at Duke, said their findings send an important message to people with high blood pressure who are trying to lose weight: "If people have high blood pressure and a weight problem, a low-carbohydrate diet might be a better option than a weight loss medication, " said Yancy, who is also a staff physician at the VA center in Durham where the study was conducted.
Clinical and basic science researchers from around the world will convene in Hong Kong from January 28 to 30 for the First International Congress on Abdominal Obesity: "Bridging the Gap between Cardiology and Diabetology." The congress, sponsored by the International Chair on Cardiometabolic Risk (ICCR), is the first-ever specialized forum for sharing new insights and evidence about abdominal obesity and its clinical and public health implications. The congress will feature panels of world-renown experts in cardiology, diabetology, lipidology, endocrinology and metabolism, obesity and nutrition, who will examine and discuss novel approaches, and share scientific and clinical data to benefit healthcare professionals, clinicians and scientists in their fight against the worldwide epidemic of abdominal obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. More than 300 presented abstracts will cover insights into the global status and significance of cardiometabolic risk, the pathophysiology of abdominal obesity and its related complications, algorithms to evaluate and measure risk, and other clinical issues that will impact the way obesity is treated.
Overweight' Adults Age 70 Or Older Are Less Likely To Die Over A 10 Year Period Than Those Of 'Normal' Weight
Adults aged over 70 years who are classified as overweight are less likely to die over a ten year period than adults who are in the 'normal' weight range, according to a new study published today in the Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. Researchers looked at data taken over a decade among more than 9, 200 Australian men and women aged between 70 and 75 at the beginning of the study, who were assessed for their health and lifestyle as part of a study into healthy aging. The paper sheds light on the situation in Australia, which is ranked the third most obese country, behind the United States and the United Kingdom. Obesity and overweight are most commonly defined according to body mass index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing bodyweight (in kg) by the square of height (in metres). The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines four principal categories: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. The thresholds for these categories were primarily based on evidence from studies of morbidity and mortality risk in younger and middle-aged adults, but it remains unclear whether the overweight and obese cut-points are overly restrictive measures for predicting mortality in older people.
A new cause of obesity due to a defect on chromosome 16 has just been discovered. It is thought to explain close to 1% of obesity cases. For carriers of the defect, the risk of becoming overweight is 50 times higher. This research is the result of close cooperation between the team of Professor Froguel (1), a CNRS researcher, in Lille, and colleagues at Imperial College in London and Vaudois University Hospital in Lausanne, with the support of ten other European research groups. The findings of the study are to be published in Nature on February 4, 2010. Obesity is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and its causes are linked to a number of factors. Several genes, about which our knowledge is constantly expanding, are implicated, as well as environmental factors. Although the rise in the number of overweight people is associated with clearly identified social causes (lack of exercise, diet, etc.), heredity also plays a major role in determining weight and the occurrence of obesity.
A small but significant proportion of morbidly obese people are missing a section of their DNA, according to research published in Nature. The authors of the study, from Imperial College London and ten other European Centres, say that missing DNA such as that identified in this research may be having a dramatic effect on some people's weight. According to the new findings, around seven in every thousand morbidly obese people are missing a part of their DNA, containing approximately 30 genes. The researchers did not find this kind of genetic variation in any normal weight people. There are an estimated 700, 000 morbidly obese people in England, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of over 40. Researchers believe that the weight problems of around one in twenty morbidly obese people are due to known genetic variations, including mutations and missing DNA. Many more similar obesity-causing mutations, such as the one in this study, remain to be found, says the team. Previous research had identified several genetic variations that contribute to obesity, most of which are single mutations in a person's DNA that change the function of a gene.
A new weight-loss supplement tested by the University of Oklahoma Health and Exercise Science Department has the potential to burn as many calories as a 20-minute walk, according to Joel T. Cramer, assistant professor of exercise physiology. Cramer says General Nutrition Centers contracted with OU to test the weight-loss benefits of the nutritional supplement called the tri-pepper blend, which contains black pepper, caffeine and a concentrated form of capsaicin - the ingredient that makes red peppers hot. The OU study showed energy expenditures of three to six percent, results which are statistically significant enough to validate product weight-loss claims, Cramer said. A group of participants in the study were given the supplement or a placebo followed by a metabolic rate test. The study measured oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced by participants to determine the arresting metabolic rate of each after receiving the supplements. The study confirmed the viability of the weight loss supplement.
Gail Donnelly's classmates nicknamed her "Knobby" because she was so skinny all her bones seemed to poke out from under her skin. But when Donnelly turned 27, that once knobby frame disappeared under mysteriously ballooning weight. Her diet hadn't changed, she was still walking several miles a day, but she gained 50 pounds in just six months. Her doctor thought the cause was ovarian cysts. It took ten years and two surgeries before a new doctor accurately diagnosed her with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It's a serious metabolic disorder and one of the major causes of hormonally related infertility, yet the disorder remains largely undiagnosed and unknown. About 5 million women in the U.S. are affected by it. "Women are told they are too fat and aren't taken seriously for a long time, " said Andrea Dunaif, M.D., the Charles F. Kettering Professor of Medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. "They go to an average of four doctors before they are diagnosed.
The levels of an inflammatory chemokine were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic cancer who were extremely obese, according to research conducted by scientists at the Jefferson Pancreatic, Biliary and Related Cancers Center. They presented their data at the 5th Annual Academic Surgical Congress, held in San Antonio. Studies have shown that obesity is correlated with inflammation. Similarly, studies have also shown that inflammation contributes to the tumor progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). This study looks at the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a marker of inflammation, in obese patients with pancreatic cancer. Hwyda Arafat, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of Surgery at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, and colleagues sought to identify whether MCP-1 could serve as a marker for pancreatic cancer, and a differentiation marker between benign and malignant lesions. The research team analyzed the MCP-1 levels in serum samples obtained from patients with confirmed PDA or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN).