Dysphagia is a medical term that is used to refer to difficulties with swallowing. The level of dysphagia varies. Some people have problems swallowing certain foods or liquids, while others are completely unable to swallow. It takes more time and effort to move food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach. Difficulty swallowing may also be associated with pain. Persistent difficulty swallowing may indicate a serious medical condition requiring treatment. The term " dysphagia " derives from the Greek root dys meaning "difficulty or disordered", and phagia meaning "to eat". According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary : Dysphagia is " Difficulty in swallowing ". Difficulty in swallowing can occur at any age, but is more common in older adults. The incidence of dysphagia is higher in the elderly, in patients who have had strokes, and in patients who are admitted to acute care hospitals or chronic care facilities. The causes of swallowing difficulties vary, and treatment depends on the cause.
Several maladaptive eating behaviors, beyond anorexia, can affect women. Indeed, some 10 to 15 percent of women have maladaptive eating behaviours and attitudes according to new study from the UniversitÃ de MontrÃ al and the Douglas Mental Health University Institute published in the International Journal of Eating Disorders. "Our results are disquieting, " says Lise Gauvin, a professor at the UniversitÃ de MontrÃ al Department of Social and Preventive Medicine. "Women are exposed to many contradictory messages. They are encouraged to lose weight yet also encouraged to eat for the simple pleasure of it." Some 1, 501 women took part in the phone survey on eating disorders and disordered eating. Not one participant was classified as anorexic. The average age of these urban-dwelling participants was 31, the majority of respondents were non-smokers and university graduates. Dr. Gauvin says the study sheds new light on binge eating and bulimia, which are characterized in part by excessive eating accompanied by feelings of having lost control.
The premise that hunger makes food look more appealing is a widely held belief just ask those who cruise grocery store aisles on an empty stomach, only to go home with a full basket and an empty wallet. Prior research studies have suggested that the so-called hunger hormone ghrelin, which the body produces when it's hungry, might act on the brain to trigger this behavior. New research in mice by UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists suggest that ghrelin might also work in the brain to make some people keep eating "pleasurable" foods when they're already full. "What we show is that there may be situations where we are driven to seek out and eat very rewarding foods, even if we're full, for no other reason than our brain tells us to, " said Dr. Jeffrey Zigman, assistant professor of internal medicine and psychiatry at UT Southwestern and co-senior author of the study appearing online and in a future edition of Biological Psychiatry. Scientists previously have linked increased levels of ghrelin to intensifying the rewarding or pleasurable feelings one gets from cocaine or alcohol.
The causes of obesity are complex and individual, but it is clear that chronic overeating plays a fundamental role. But when this behaviour becomes compulsive and out of control, it is often classified as "food addiction" - a label that has generated considerable controversy, according to a McMaster University psychiatrist and obesity researcher. In a commentary appearing in the Dec. 21, 2009, issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), Dr. Valerie Taylor, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioural neurosciences at McMaster and director of the Bariatric Surgery Psychiatry Program at St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, and her co-authors argue that food addiction in some individuals may be a reality and needs to be considered in the management of weight problems. "The concept of addiction is complex, and the delineation of its defining characteristics has fostered considerable debate, " Taylor and her co-authors write. "Despite a lack of consensus, researchers nevertheless agree that the process involves a compulsive pattern of use, even in the face of negative health and social consequences.
In an unprecedented show of concern, The Academy for Eating Disorders (AED), Binge Eating Disorder Association (BEDA), Eating Disorder Coalition (EDC), International Association for Eating Disorder Professionals (IADEP), and National Eating Disorder Association (NEDA) have joined forces and are urging focus on health and lifestyle rather than weight as a measurement of well-being. In late November, media stories reported that an American university implemented a new strategy for combating rising weights by requiring students to be weighed during their freshman year. Those with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or over are required either to lose weight or pass an extra course focused on physical fitness. In response to this, and other similar strategies within the global "war against obesity ", national and international eating disorder organizations have joined forces to urge school administrators, employers, and health policy makers to focus more on health and lifestyle for all populations rather than on weight alone.
Binge eating disorder typically includes periods of excessive overeating. However, a person with a binge eating disorder does not subsequently induce purging (vomiting), as is the case with bulimia. Binge eating can occur on its own, or alongside other disorders or conditions, such as Prader-Willi disorder, or a lesion of the hypothalamus gland. Binge eating can encourage the development of hypertension ( high blood pressure ), obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Treatment options depend on what is causing the binge eating. A person with a binge eating disorder feels compelled to eat too much. Individuals will consume enormous quantities of food, even when they are not hungry. Binge eaters believe they have absolutely no control over their eating. After a bout of binge eating the person feels disgust and guilt. This feeling of failed self may form part of an underlying problem, such as anxiety or depression - both can either cause or exacerbate the disorder. Even the best of us occasionally overeats, helping ourselves to seconds, and even thirds;
NewYork-Presbyterian, Weill Cornell And Columbia University Establish Integrated Eating Disorders Center
NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, in affiliation with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, announced the creation of an integrated eating disorders center. Opening today is a key clinical component of this new center -- The Outlook at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Westchester Division in White Plains. The only specialized inpatient eating disorders program in New York state, The Outlook will provide treatment for adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, as well as binge eating and other eating-related disorders. Also under the umbrella of the integrated center are outpatient treatment programs at NewYork-Presbyterian/ Westchester, the New York State Psychiatric Institute and on East 60th St. in Manhattan. "Eating disorders seriously imperil the health and well-being of those affected, while also presenting a major challenge for their families. With the creation of this integrated eating disorders center, we bring together unprecedented clinical, research and educational expertise and resources so that we can better provide comprehensive and compassionate treatment that addresses each patient's specific needs in order to improve their health, " says Dr.
Potentially life threatening medical complications are 'common' in children affected by early onset eating disorders (EOEDs), a study reported in the Medical Journal of Australia has found. The first prospective national study of EOEDs also revealed major limitations in current diagnostic criteria, possible missed diagnoses and a need for better education of health professionals. The study examined data from 101 cases of EOEDs in children aged five to 13 years, and found that 78% were hospitalised with an average length of stay of almost 25 days. Study co-author and leading child psychologist Dr Sloane Madden, from Westmead Children's Hospital, said the results show younger children with EOEDs are presenting with severe disease. "Only 37% of inpatients in the study met the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, yet 61% had potentially life threatening complications of malnutrition and only 51 % met the weight criteria, " Dr Madden said. "This suggests the current criteria for diagnosing anorexia nervosa in young children are limited.
Remuda Ranch Programs for Eating and Anxiety Disorders reports elderly men and women may have eating disorders more often than most health professionals realize. Recent research reports eating disorders in elderly women have increased and the majority of deaths from anorexia nervosa occur in people over age 65. "Because few health professionals think of screening for eating disorders in the elderly, many elderly eating disorder patients have frequently been missed, with tragic consequences, " said Edward Cumella, Ph.D., executive director at Remuda Ranch. "Anorexia nervosa is a very serious illness in seniors because many already have compromised health to begin with." Many elderly people living independently have a limited number of meaningful relationships and are limited in their contact with others. This makes eating disorder behaviors hard to identify. For those living in nursing care centers or assisted living facilities, it's common to refuse food and become dangerously thin.
Having strong memories of that rich, delicious dessert you ate last night? If so, you shouldn't feel like a glutton. It's only natural. UC Irvine researchers have found that eating fat-rich foods triggers the formation of long-term memories of that activity. The study adds to their recent work linking dietary fats to appetite control and may herald new approaches for treating obesity and other eating disorders. Study results appear this week in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Daniele Piomelli, the Louise Turner Arnold Chair in Neurosciences, teamed with UCI's James McGaugh, one of the world's leading learning and memory researchers, to examine how dietary fats facilitate memory retention. Piomelli's previous studies identified how oleic acids from fats are transformed into a compound called oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in the upper region of the small intestine. OEA sends hunger-curbing messages to the brain to increase feelings of fullness.