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Antibodies From Plants May Help Fight Disease

The first head-to-head comparison of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies produced from plants versus the same antibodies produced from mammalian cells has shown that plant-produced antibodies can fight infection equally well. Scientists from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Arizona State University conducted the comparison as a test of the potential for treating disease in developing nations with the significantly less expensive plant-based production technique. The results are reported online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Antibodies, which are part of the immune system, bind to foreign invaders to disable them and label them for destruction.

NOVAVAX Reports Additional Positive Data From Its Trivalent Seasonal Influenza VLP Vaccine Clinical Study In Healthy Adults

Novavax, Inc. (Nasdaq: NVAX) announced new data from a clinical study that began in May of 2009 among healthy adults 18 to 49 years of age with Novavax's trivalent seasonal influenza Virus-like Particle (VLP) vaccine. The vaccine matched the influenza strains recommended for the 2008-2009 influenza season including H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/2007, H3N2 A/Brisbane/10/2007, and B/Florida/04/2006 strains. The study enrolled 241 subjects, including 221 who were randomized to receive either VLP vaccine at 15 mcg or 60 mcg doses or a placebo and 20 subjects who received a licensed inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Novavax reported safety and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers from this study in a poster presentation at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).

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What Is Osteomyelitis? What Causes Osteomyelitis?

Osteomyelitis means infection of the bone or bone marrow; inflammation of the bone due to infection. Osteomyelitis sometimes occurs as a complication of injury or surgery. In some cases, the infection may get into bone tissue from the bloodstream. Patients with osteomyelitis typically experience deep pain and muscle spasms in the inflammation area, as well as fever. Osteomyelitis is usually caused by a bacterial infection. In some cases, a fungal infection may be the cause. Bone infections commonly affect the leg and upper arm bones, as well as the spine and pelvis - the long bones. There are three types of osteomyelitis: Acute osteomyelitis - the infection develops within two weeks of an injury, initial infection, or the start of an underlying disease.

Tracking The Spread Of Disease, Malware And Power Outages

An assistant professor with the Virginia Tech College of Engineering has won a $750, 000 federal grant to formulate a mathematical framework that can track the spread of pandemics among populations and malware across wireless computer networks, as well as how a blackout occurring on one major power grid can cause a cascade of additional neighboring networks to fail. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Early Career Principal Investigator program, the five-year grant was awarded to Anil Vullikanti, an assistant professor with Virginia Tech department of computer science and a member of the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. He will design by computer a unified mathematical framework with an eye toward preventing future pandemics such as the recent H1NI flu virus and the 1918 influenza pandemic that is said to have killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, as well as malware/computer virus attacks, and mass power grid network disasters akin to the so-called Northeast Blackout of 2003 that left 10 million Canadians and 45 million U.

First Measurement Of Energy Released From A Virus During Infection

Within a virus's tiny exterior is a store of energy waiting to be unleashed. When the virus encounters a host cell, this pent-up energy is released, propelling the viral DNA into the cell and turning it into a virus factory. For the first time, Carnegie Mellon University physicist Alex Evilevitch has directly measured the energy associated with the expulsion of viral DNA, a pivotal discovery toward fully understanding the physical mechanisms that control viral infection and designing drugs to interfere with the process. "We are studying the physics of viruses, not the biology of viruses, " said Evilevitch, associate professor of physics in the Mellon College of Science at Carnegie Mellon.

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An Answer To Another Of Life's Big Questions

Monash University biochemists have found a critical piece in the evolutionary puzzle that explains how life on Earth evolved millions of centuries ago. The team, from the School of Biomedical Sciences, has described the process by which bacteria developed into more complex cells and found this crucial step happened much earlier in the evolutionary timeline than previously thought. Team leader and ARC Federation Fellow Trevor Lithgow said the research explained how mitochondria -- the power house of human and other cells, which provide complex eukaryotic cells with energy and ability to produce, divide and move -- were thought to have evolved about 2000 million years ago from primitive bacteria.

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