For years, doctors have warned patients to finish their antibiotic prescriptions or risk a renewed infection by a "superbug" that can mount a more powerful defense against the same drug. But a new study by Boston University biomedical engineers indicates that treating bacteria with levels of antibiotics insufficient to kill them produces germs that are cross-resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. In the Feb. 12 issue of Molecular Cell, research led by Boston University Professor James J. Collins details for the first time the biomolecular process that produces superbugs. When administered in lethal levels, antibiotics trigger a fatal chain reaction within the bacteria that shreds the cell's DNA.
In the last century a number of major global pandemics had disastrous effects on the world's population as well as causing health care professionals to reassess how we deal with such pandemic situations. More recently, the swine influenza pandemic reminded the world that while pandemics may now be a less-common occurrence, they are still an ever-present threat, despite advances in health and medical science. The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia's 2010 Annual Offshore Conference from 28 April to 7 May 2010 will feature a special presentation on Respiratory Viruses and Pandemics, presented by leading consultant physician at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Professor Paul Seale.
Otitis externa, also known as acute external otitis, swimmer's ear, or tropical ear is an infection of the skin covering the outer ear canal that leads to the ear drum, called the tympanic membrane. It is usually due to bacteria, such as streptococcus, staphylococcus, or pseudomonas. Swimmer's ear usually occurs after excessive water exposure - when water collects in the ear canal, often trapped by wax, the skin becomes soggy; an ideal environment for bacteria to thrive. The protective characteristics of the ear work best when they are dry. People with allergic conditions, such as asthma, psoriasis, rhinitis (allergic) or eczema are significantly more likely to develop otitis externa, compared to others.
Oral thrush (oral candidiasis) is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans causes an infection on the lining of the mouth. It is also known as "Thrush". When occurring in the mouth or throat of adults it may also be termed candidosis or moniliasis. Oral thrush causes white lesions, usually on the tongue or inner cheeks. The lesions can be painful and may bleed slightly when they are scraped. The infected mucosa of the mouth may appear inflamed and red. Sometimes the condition may spread to the roof of the mouth, gums, tonsils or the back of the throat. It is also possible to get thrush in other parts of the body, such as the vagina, nappy area or nail folds.
Vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, has long been a model system for studying and understanding the life cycle of negative-strand RNA viruses, which include viruses that cause influenza, measles and rabies. More importantly, research has shown that VSV has the potential to be genetically modified to serve as an anti-cancer agent, exercising high selectivity in killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells, and as a potent vaccine against HIV. For such modifications to occur, however, scientists must have an accurate picture of the virus's structure. While three-dimensional structural information of VSV's characteristic bullet shape and its assembly process has been sought for decades, efforts have been hampered by technological and methodological limitations.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have signed a license agreement with Genentech, a wholly owned member of the Roche group, and Roche, that grants the companies exclusive rights to manufacture, develop and market human monoclonal antibodies to treat and protect against group 1 influenza viruses. These viruses include the strains for the current seasonal and H1N1 influenzas. Genentech and Roche also have a non-exclusive right to manufacture, develop and market diagnostic tests for group 1 influenza. The discovery of the antibodies was first reported by Wayne A. Marasco, MD, PhD, associate professor of medicine at Dana-Farber and Harvard Medical School;