Cervical spondylosis is a general term for age-related wear and tear affecting the joints in the neck. It is also known as cervical osteoarthritis and degenerative osteoarthritis. This condition usually appears in men and women older than 40 and progresses with age. Men usually develop it at an earlier age than women do. It can lead to episodes of stiffness and neck pain. With age, the bones and cartilage that make up the backbone and neck gradually deteriorate. Sometimes there is formation of irregular bony outgrowths called bone spurs. These changes are characteristic of cervical spondylosis. Even so, many people with signs of cervical spondylosis on X-rays manage to escape the associated symptoms, which include pain, stiffness and muscle spasms. In more serious cases of cervical spondylosis, changes in the structure of bones or joints in the neck can cause nerves to get pinched or compressed. They may also cause them to press against nearby blood vessels. This can temporarily block the flow of blood and lead to more serious symptoms, such as lack of feeling in the hands and legs, a loss of co-ordination and, less commonly, loss of bladder control.
Targeted Drug-delivery Approaches By Nanoparticulate Carriers In The Therapy Of Inflammatory Diseases
Limitations in therapy induced by adverse effects due to unselective drug availability and therefore the use of potentially too high doses are a common problem. One prominent example for this dilemma are inflammatory diseases. The therapeutic drawback can be overcome using nanocarrier-based drug targeting strategies which improve the selective delivery of drugs to the site of action, the so called drug targeting. Specific uptake of nanoparticles by immune related cells in inflamed barriers offers selective drug targeting to the inflamed tissue. Common inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, uveitis or inflammatory bowel disease can be efficiently treated using nanocarrier-based drug delivery strategies which avoid common adverse effects. Source Journal of the Royal Society Interface
A recent study suggests that increasing patient responsibility for making medical decisions may decrease their willingness to accept risky treatment options. Details of this proof-of-concept study appear in the December issue of Arthritis Care & Research, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) nearly 1.1 billion visits to physician offices and hospital outpatient and emergency departments were made in the U.S. in 2006. A noval approach to doctor-patient interactions has emerged where both a patient and health care professional share information and jointly decide on course of treatment for the patient. This approach called shared-decision making (SDM) has been used in clincical settings to improve the quality of care for patients. Past studies have shown that increasing patient participation in decision-making decreases utiliztion of risky procedures. Other studies indicate that risk perception is increased under conditions that emphasize choice.
Southern Illinois University researchers determined Medicare beneficiaries living in rural areas were 27% more likely than urban recipients to have total knee or hip replacement surgeries. Researchers found women were more likely than men to undergo total joint replacement surgeries. Differences in elective joint surgeries between white individuals and minorities in both rural and urban areas were observed, but were less pronounced in rural settings. Full findings appear in the in the December issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the U.S., and musculoskeletal problems consume roughly 2.5% of U.S. gross domestic product. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) reported that 773, 000 Americans have a hip or knee replaced each year. Generally, new joints last 10 to 15 years and younger patients may need to have repeated surgeries to replace damaged joints.
Osteoarthritis (OA), a highly prevalent disease, raised aggregate annual medical care expenditures in the U.S. by $185.5 billion according to researchers from Stony Brook University. Insurers footed $149.4 billion of the total medical spend and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures were $36.1 billion (2007 dollars). Results of the cost analysis study are published in the December issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate 27 million Americans suffer from OA with more women than men affected by the disease. Forecasts indicate that by the year 2030, 25% of the adult U.S. population, or nearly 67 million people, will have physician-diagnosed arthritis. OA is a major debilitating disease causing gradual loss of cartilage, primarily affecting the knees, hips, hands, feet, and spine. John Rizzo, Ph.D., and colleagues used data from the 1996-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to determine the overall annual expected medical care expenditures for OA in the U.
A new study by radiologists found that middle-aged men and women who do lots of exercise, and particularly high impact activities like running and jumping, may be unknowingly causing damage to their knees and putting themselves at greater risk of developing osteoarthritis. By implication, low impact activities like swimming and cycling may protect damaged and healthy joints they said, although further research is needed to confirm this. The study was the work of Christoph Stehling and colleagues, and is being presented Monday at the 95th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), taking place from Nov 29 to Dec 4, in Chicago. Stehling is a research fellow in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and a resident in radiology with the Department of Clinical Radiology at the University of Muenster in Germany. Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, affects some 27 million American adults, estimates the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Spondylarthritis (SpA) represents a group of arthritidies that share clinical features such as inflammatory back agony and inflammation at sites where tendons attach to bone. It includes ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel-disease-related arthritis, reactive arthritis (ReA) and undifferentiated spondylarthritides (uSpA). In that Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia pneumoniae (which are repeatedly asymptomatic) often cause ReA, a late peruse examined whether there was a connexion between these two infections and uSpA. The study was published in the May theory of Arthritis & Rheumatism. Led by John D. Carter of theUniversity of South Florida, the glance at involved blood and synovial tissue analysis from 26 patients who had chronic uSpA or Chlamydia-induced ReA. Synovial tissue samples from 167 osteoarthritis patients were used as controls. Samples were analyzed to assess chlamydial DNA and the 26 subjects were asked provided they had any known exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia pneumoniae and whether so, the infection was documented in relation to the onset of their uSpA.
Millions of patients suffering from diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, hemophilia, hepatitis C and certain types of cancer are at risk of incurring thousands of dollars in medical expenses due to a new pricing system being implemented by many insurance companies across the United States. Health insurance companies are rapidly adopting this new system, commonly called Tier IV, for several of the expensive drugs used in the treatment of several diseases asking patients to pay hundreds and much thousands of dollars a month for needed prescriptions. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Mississippi was one of bounteous insurance companies to adopt this system, forcing its policyholders to shoulder 20 to 40 percent of the costs of their medication. Traditionally, individuals and families pay reasonable co-pays for medications as constituent of their health insurance coverage, such as $15 for generic, $20 for brand name, or $30 for off formulary. Tier IV pricing goes above-and-beyond the traditional co-pay, forcing patients to earnings hundreds or thousands of dollars out-of-pocket each month.
A few months ago, 63-year old Leona Carter could no longer application her correctly arm. She couldn't raise it, brush her teeth or get dressed. The constant pain in her honorable shoulder was due to a massive and irreparable rotator cuff tear, along with severe arthritis. Her shoulder seam had worn away and the rotator cuff tendons in that shoulder were torn beyond repair. She settle up with the pain as stretched as she could, but it eventually became unbearable. A standard shoulder replacement, a decades deficient treatment for severe shoulder arthritis, would credible not compass worked for her due to her dangerous rotator cuff. However, a recently developed and radically clashing prosthesis, called a reverse total shoulder, offered the best chance of decreasing her malaise and improving shoulder function. "A normal shoulder is a ball-and-saucer joint, with its stability and motion governed to a great magnitude by the surrounding rotator cuff musculature, " said Dr. Omer Ilhai, an orthopedic surgeon at The Methodist Infirmary in Houston.
Current research describes a current way to track the boost of autoimmune diseases before the onset of symptoms. The related report by Zangani et al, "Tracking early autoimmune disease by bioluminescent imaging of NF-О B activation reveals pathology in multiple organ systems, " appears in the Apr 2009 query of The American Magazine of Pathology. Autoimmune diseases such as lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes are caused when the unaffected system attacks the body's own cells. Normally, immune cells are prevented from attacking normal cells; however, in patients with autoimmune disease, this "tolerance" is lost. The instant causes of autoimmune diseases endure unknown, partially due to the inability to detect disease before the onset of symptoms. Early detection of autoimmune disease is critical for assessing new treatments. The grain NF-О B is activated by inflammation, which plays a indispensable role in autoimmune disease development, forging NF-О B a prime candidate to track autoimmune activity.