A researcher who led an Australian study that found adults aged 70 and over who are classed as overweight under the current Body Mass Index (BMI) definition are less likely to die over a 10 year period than their normal weight counterparts is calling for a revision of BMI for this group so it more accurately reflects lowest mortality risk. He suggests people who live to their 70s and beyond may have a different relationship between body fat and risks to health than younger people. You can read about the findings of the ten-year research project online in the 28th January issue of The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. The study was led by Winthrop Professor Leon Flicker, Director Western Australian Centre for Health and Ageing (WACHA) at The University of Western Australia. BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple ratio of weight to height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults: it is widely used in research and also in clinical practice, for instance in helping to explain concepts of obesity and overweight to patients.
Cost sharing and increased co-pays, even if it's just a few dollars, can lead seniors to put off visits to the doctor and result in increased hospital admissions and longer hospital stays, according to a new study. The Associated Press/The Washington Post : "With health care costs skyrocketing, many public and private insurers have required patients to pay more out-of-pocket when they seek care. The new study confirms what many policymakers had feared: cost-shifting moves can backfire." The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, looked at 900, 000 seniors in 36 Medicare managed-care plans, half of which raised co-pays for visits to doctors. "For every 100 people enrolled in plans that raised copays, there were 20 fewer doctor visits, 2 additional hospital admissions and 13 more days spent in the hospital in the year after the increase compared to those in plans whose copays did not change, researchers found" (Chang, 1/27). Reuters reports, the study's finding "questions the wisdom of raising co-payments to save money, at least among the elderly.
The same evolutionary genetic advantages that have helped increase human lifespans also make us uniquely susceptible to diseases of aging such as cancer, heart disease and dementia, reveals a study published in a special PNAS collection on "Evolution in Health and Medicine" on Tuesday, Jan. 26. Comparing the life spans of humans with other primates, Caleb Finch, ARCO & William F. Kieschnick Professor in the Neurobiology of Aging in the USC Davis School of Gerontology, explains that slight differences in DNA sequencing in humans have enabled us to better respond to infection and inflammation, the leading cause of mortality in wild chimpanzees and in early human populations with limited access to modern medicine. Specifically, humans have evolved what Finch calls "a meat-adaptive gene" that has increased the human lifespan by regulating the effects of meat-rich diets. ApoE3 is unique to humans and is a variant of the cholesterol transporting gene, apolipoprotein E, which regulates inflammation and many aspects of aging in the brain and arteries.
As you age, your blood ages. Deep in your bone marrow, blood stem cells keep churning out your blood cells, but the mix of blood cell types goes awry, making you more prone to disease. Joslin Diabetes Center scientists now have demonstrated that in old mice exposed to certain proteins that are present in blood from young mice, old blood stem cells begin to act like young ones-and this process is driven by signals from another type of cell nearby in the bone. Published in a paper in Nature on January 28, the findings from researchers in the lab of Joslin Principal Investigator Amy J. Wagers, Ph.D., advance our understanding of aging of the blood-forming ("hematopoietic") system and point toward ways to treat age-related ailments via the blood. Previous work by many labs gave evidence that the decline in blood stem cell function that comes with age is partly intrinsic to the cells themselves. However, these cells also are affected by signals from other cells in the local bone marrow microenvironment or "niche".
Overweight' Adults Age 70 Or Older Are Less Likely To Die Over A 10 Year Period Than Those Of 'Normal' Weight
Adults aged over 70 years who are classified as overweight are less likely to die over a ten year period than adults who are in the 'normal' weight range, according to a new study published today in the Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. Researchers looked at data taken over a decade among more than 9, 200 Australian men and women aged between 70 and 75 at the beginning of the study, who were assessed for their health and lifestyle as part of a study into healthy aging. The paper sheds light on the situation in Australia, which is ranked the third most obese country, behind the United States and the United Kingdom. Obesity and overweight are most commonly defined according to body mass index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing bodyweight (in kg) by the square of height (in metres). The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines four principal categories: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. The thresholds for these categories were primarily based on evidence from studies of morbidity and mortality risk in younger and middle-aged adults, but it remains unclear whether the overweight and obese cut-points are overly restrictive measures for predicting mortality in older people.
Researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts have developed a new tool for gene therapy that significantly increases gene delivery to cells in the retina compared to other carriers and DNA alone, according to a study published in the January issue of The Journal of Gene Medicine. The tool, a peptide called PEG-POD, provides a vehicle for therapeutic genes and may help researchers develop therapies for degenerative eye disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. "For the first time, we have demonstrated an efficient way to transfer DNA into cells without using a virus, currently the most common means of DNA delivery. Many non-viral vectors for gene therapy have been developed but few, if any, work in post-mitotic tissues such as the retina and brain. Identifying effective carriers like PEG-POD brings us closer to gene therapy to protect the retinal cells from degeneration, " said senior author Rajendra Kumar-Singh, PhD, associate professor of ophthalmology and adjunct associate professor of neuroscience at Tufts University School of Medicine (TUSM) and member of the genetics;
Four new studies published in a leading journal this week link exercise with healthy aging, either through reduced risk or slower progression of several age-related conditions or through improvements in overall health in older age, and detail associations between physical activity and cognitive function, bone density and overall health. All four studies, and an accompanying editorial commentary appear in the 25 January issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine. In the accompanying editorial, Drs Jeff Williamson and Marco Pahor, of the University of Florida, point out that previous studies have linked exercise to beneficial effects on a range of conditions and diseases, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, lung disease, arthritis, falls and fractures, that can hamper older people's ability to get on with their day to day tasks and lead indendepent lives. They write: "Regular physical activity has also been associated with greater longevity as well as reduced risk of physical disability and dependence, the most important health outcome, even more than death, for most older people.
By comparing the immune responses of both, young and old mice, to bacterial infection they found that the number of macrophages, one of the major cell populations involved in the elimination of infecting bacteria, decreases rapidly in aged mice. This decline in the number of fighters and the associated weakness of the immune defense may be responsible for the age-associated increase in susceptibility to infections. The HZI researchers have succeeded to enhance the resistance to an infection in aged mice by treating them with a macrophage-specific growth factor. This treatment increases the amount of macrophages in aged mice and improves their capacity to fight the infection. This study has been published in the current issue of the scientific magazine Journal of Pathology. The main task of the immune system is to protect the body against invading pathogens. For this purpose, a variety of different cell types and molecular factors work together in a complex network. Together, they compose a highly effective defense front line.
Taxing Details That Harm Patients The Wall Street Journal A new levy on Medicare Advantage plans would hurt lower-income seniors the most. ... For America's sake, reform needs to happen. But it's also too complex an issue to rush a treatment with details that might cause harm (Bob Dole, 1/12). Health Reform Headaches The Democrats Don't Need The Washington Post [T]here are some provisions in the pending legislation that, if included in the final bill, may well drape Democratic candidates with 'Kick Me' signs come November. One of these is the excise tax on more costly health insurance policies, a feature of the Senate bill that President Obama supports but that is opposed by organized labor and most House Democrats. Another is the fine to be paid by individuals who decline any coverage -- it's a relatively small amount (the Senate bill sets it at $95 for the first year) but an issue that could loom large in the political wars to come (Harold Meyerson, 1/13). Afraid Of Health Care Legislation?
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the ten most disabling diseases in the developed world and is set to become more of a financial burden on health services as average life expectancy increases. OA is the most common form of arthritis, affecting nearly 27 million Americans or 12.1% of the adult population of the United States, according to Laurence et al.В A 2001 study showed that the disease costs US health services about $89.1 billion, 2 and indirect costs relating to wages and productivity losses and unplanned home care averaged $4603 per person.3 In a review for F1000 Medicine Reports, Yves Henrotin and Jean-Emile Dubuc examine the range of therapies currently on offer for repairing cartilaginous tissue. They also consider how recent technological developments could affect the treatment of OA in elderly populations. The most promising therapeutic technique is Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI), which involves non-invasively removing a small sample of cartilage from a healthy site, isolating and culturing cells, then re-implanting them into the damaged area.