Health and Fitness

New CVD Guidelines And Position Papers

Several new guidelines and position papers offering the most up to date information to ensure that clinicians practice evidence-based medicine were released at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress 2009 this week. Among them are the following: 2009 CCS Canadian Cholesterol Guidelines 2009 CCS Consensus Conference Update on the Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease CCS/Canadian Association of Radiologists Consensus Training Standards for Cardiac CT 2009 CCS Heart Failure Guidelines Guidelines are one of the highest priorities of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), says their president Dr. Charles Kerr. "They are one of our most important services and are the highest rated by clinicians, " he says. "For example, the CCS heart failure guidelines website has received a huge number of hits this year - in the hundreds of thousands. They have an enormous impact." The CCS usually puts out one set of guidelines each year. This year, the CCS guidelines committee, chaired by Dr Michelle Graham, coordinated the release of 10 guidelines and position statements.

Liquorice Consumption In Pregnancy May Affect Eating Liquorice In Pregnancy May Affect A Child's IQ And Behavior

Expectant mothers who eat excessive quantities of liquorice during pregnancy could adversely affect their child's intelligence and behaviour, a study has shown. A study of eight year old children whose mothers ate large amounts of liquorice when pregnant found they did not perform as well as other youngsters in cognitive tests. They were also more likely to have poor attention spans and show disruptive behaviour such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). It is thought that a component in liquorice called glycyrrhizin may impair the placenta, allowing stress hormones to cross from the mother to the baby. High levels of such hormones, known as glucocorticoids, are thought to affect fetal brain development and have been linked to behavioural disorders in children. The results of the study are published in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Eight year olds whose mothers had been monitored for liquorice consumption during pregnancy were tested on a range of cognitive functions including vocabulary, memory and spatial awareness.

Exposure To Tobacco And Lead Linked To ADHD In Children

Researchers in the US found that exposure to tobacco in the womb and to lead during childhood was linked to a particularly high risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) in children, suggesting that while we tend to focus on treatment for ADHD, eliminating such exposures might prevent the condition in many hundreds of thousands of children. The study was the work of senior author Dr Robert Kahn, a physician and researcher at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Ohio, and colleagues, and was published online on 23 November in the journal Pediatrics. Kahn and colleagues estimated that up to 35 per cent of cases of ADHD in youngsters aged between 8 and 15 could be reduced by getting rid of both prenatal exposure to tobacco and childhood exposure to lead: in numbers this figure represents some 800, 000 children in the US population. Kahn told the press that while the tendency was to focus on treatment: "Our study suggests that reducing exposures to environmental toxicants might be an important way to lower rates of ADHD.

Diminished Proactive Attention Exoerienced By Action Video Game Players

Video game players are often accused of passively reacting to tasks that are spoon fed to them through graphics and stimuli on the screen. A group of researchers from Iowa State University shows that playing lots of video games has different effects on two types of cognitive activity, proactive and reactive attention. Proactive attention can be thought of as a sort of "gearing up" mechanism. For instance, when players that are familiar with a particular game anticipate an action they need to take, such as getting a key or a pot of gold, in order to get to the next level. Reactive control is described as happening "just in time", for example, when a monster suddenly appears that is about to thwart the player's advantage or ability to get to the next level. The study was published in the latest issue of Psychophysiology and used a simple visual task to test the two types of attention by measuring brain waves and behavioral responses. This task measured how proactive and reactive attention differed in frequent video game players vs.

Adult Working Memory May Be Impaired By Amphetamine Use In Adolescence

Rats exposed to high doses of amphetamines at an age that corresponds to the later years of human adolescence display significant memory deficits as adults - long after the exposure ends, researchers report. The declines in short-term or "working" memory are most pronounced when the rats are exposed during adolescence, rather than as adults, the researchers found. "Animals that were given the amphetamine during the adolescent time period were worse at tasks requiring working memory than adult animals that were given the same amount of amphetamine as adults, " said psychology professor Joshua Gulley, who led the study with graduate student Jessica Stanis. "This tells us that their working memory capacity has been significantly altered by that pre-exposure to amphetamine." Gulley and his colleagues presented their findings at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Chicago. The researchers tested two types of amphetamine exposure: intermittent (a steady dose every other day) and "binge-escalation, " in which increasing amounts of the drug were given over a period of four days, followed by a simulated binge - a high dose every two hours for eight hours on the fifth day.

Prenatal Tobacco And Lead Exposure Linked To ADHD

Children exposed to tobacco in utero and to lead during childhood are eight times more likely to be diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ), according to the first study to examine the combined effects of these exposures in U.S. children. The study, "Association of Tobacco and Lead Exposures with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, " published in the December issue of Pediatrics (appearing online Nov. 23), examined records of prenatal tobacco and childhood lead exposure in the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of U.S. children ages 8 to 15. Prenatal tobacco exposure was measured by report of maternal cigarette use during pregnancy, and lead exposure was assessed by current blood lead levels. Children exposed prenatally to tobacco smoke were 2.4 times more likely to have ADHD, and those with blood lead levels in the top third of the population had a 2.3-fold increased likelihood of ADHD.

New Study On Vyvanse R lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Capsules CII Shows Administration Of Vyvanse Through Two Different Routes

Shire plc (LSE: SHP, Nasdaq: SHPGY), the global specialty biopharmaceutical company, announced new data about the pharmacokinetics of its Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) medication, Vyvanse ® (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) Capsules CII, which showed that Vyvanse provided similar concentrations of its active medication in the blood when administered either intranasally or when administered orally. Specifically, the overall rate and extent of exposure to d-amphetamine, the active medication in Vyvanse, was similar in healthy adults whether they received the drug as a solution through the nose or orally as a capsule. These findings, which were recently presented at a major psychiatric meeting, reflect the ongoing efforts of Shire to further understand the abuse potential of Vyvanse. "This research is important because the route of administration of a drug may affect the rate and extent of absorption, which in turn may affect the risk of abuse. However, in this study, absorption of Vyvanse through the nose did not result in a rapid rise in d-amphetamine levels, "( )said Patrick Martin, MD, Vice President, Global Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics at Shire.

High Volume Video Gamers Have More Difficulty Staying Attentive

Parents have long lectured their children about the mind-numbing effects of playing video games all day. And a new Iowa State University study has found that high volume action video game players -- those who play around 40 hours per week -- actually had more difficulty keeping focused on tasks requiring longer, more proactive attention than those who played video games less than a couple of hours a week. The study, published online this week in the latest issue of the professional journal Psychophysiology, also supports research published within the last year establishing a positive association between being addicted to playing video games and having Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). "Our thinking right now is the sort of real world effect that you might be seeing is that these are individuals who would really have difficulty trying to maintain their attention independently over time, " said Rob West, one of the study's authors, an associate professor of psychology and director of the cognitive psychology program at Iowa State.

ADHD: Vyvanse Capsules CII Administration Through 2 Routes Demonstrated Similar Pharmacokinetic Profile

Shire plc (LSE: SHP, NASDAQ: SHPGY), the global specialty biopharmaceutical company, announced new data about the pharmacokinetics of its Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) medication, Vyvanse ® (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) Capsules CII, which showed that Vyvanse provided similar concentrations of its active medication in the blood when administered either intranasally or when administered orally. Specifically, the overall rate and extent of exposure to d-amphetamine, the active medication in Vyvanse, was similar in healthy adults whether they received the drug as a solution through the nose or orally as a capsule. These findings, which were recently presented at a major psychiatric meeting, reflect the ongoing efforts of Shire to further understand the abuse potential of Vyvanse. "This research is important because the route of administration of a drug may affect the rate and extent of absorption, which in turn may affect the risk of abuse. However, in this study, absorption of Vyvanse through the nose did not result in a rapid rise in d-amphetamine levels, " said Patrick Martin, MD, Vice President, Global Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics at Shire.

KemPharm, Inc. Announces Initiation Of Phase 1 Trial Of KP106 For ADHD

KemPharm, Inc. announced that it has commenced a Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers of its novel prodrug compound, KP106, which is in development for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). KP106, a new chemical entity (NCE) composed of d-amphetamine and a ligand, is the lead investigational candidate from KemPharm's proprietary ligand activated therapy (LAT) platform, which creates improved versions of FDA-approved drugs. KemPharm began the KP106 program in 2007 and has initiated the Phase 1 clinical trial of this candidate in less than 24 months. "Preclinical studies suggest that the prodrug properties of KP106 may offer an improved side effect profile, including reduced weight loss and cardiovascular effects, and decreased abuse potential compared with current amphetamine-based treatments for ADHD, " said Robert Karr, M.D., Chief Executive Officer of KemPharm. "We are therefore very excited to begin clinical studies of KP106 because, if it continues to demonstrate results similar to the compelling preclinical data, KP106 may provide a valuable new treatment option for patients with ADHD.

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