Tourette syndrome, also known as Tourette's syndrome, GTS, Tourette's, TS, Tourette's disorder, or Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, is an inherited tic disorder characterized by multiple motor (physical) tics and at least one vocal tic. Experts believe it is closely linked to damage or abnormalities to the basal ganglia of the brain. In this text, a tic is an unusual movement or sound over which the person may have little or no control. This may include eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, facial movements, head movements, or limb movements. A tic may also include the utterance of unusual sounds, which may include inappropriate and sometimes offensive words (verbal ticks). Contrary to popular belief, only a small minority of people with Tourette's utter obscene words unintentionally. Tourette's is part of a spectrum of tic disorders, including transient and chronic tics. The tics may emerge at any age, but do so most commonly between the ages of 6 and 18.
Only about half of American children and teenagers who have certain mental disorders receive professional services, according to a nationally representative survey funded in part by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The survey also provides a comprehensive look at the prevalence of common mental disorders. The results are part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a collaboration between NIMH and the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted from 2001 to 2004 had 3, 042 participants. These most recent results include data from children and adolescents ages 8 to 15, and were published online ahead of print December 14, 2009, in the journal Pediatrics. "Data on the prevalence of mental disorders among U.S. youth have been varied, making it difficult to truly understand how many children and teens are affected, " said NIMH Director Thomas R. Insel, M.D. "These data from the NHANES survey can serve as an important baseline as we follow trends of mental disorders in children.
Children who are exposed to tobacco smoke during their early development can develop abnormal behavioral symptoms by the age of ten years. This association was discovered using data from the GINI-plus study by scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum MÃ nchen in collaboration with colleagues of Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitÃ t Munich, Technische UniversitÃ t MÃ nchen and Marienhospital Wesel. The scientists observed that the impact of tobacco smoke was especially detrimental during gestation. The results of the study have been published in the current online issue of the renowned journal Environmental Health Perspectives. "We were able to show that children who are exposed to tobacco smoke prenatally and during the first years of life have a higher risk of developing abnormal behavioral symptoms when they are of school age, " said Dr. Joachim Heinrich of the Institute of Epidemiology at Helmholtz Zentrum MÃ nchen. "Moreover, it makes a difference whether the child was exposed to tobacco smoke first after birth or was already confronted with it during prenatal development.
It seems obvious that naturally waking up from sleep and being startled by something in the environment are two very different emotional states. However, the neuroscience that underlies these different forms of arousal has, for the most part, remained a mystery. Now, new research published by Cell Press in the November 25 issue of the journal Neuron demonstrates that there are at least two completely separate and independent forms of arousal in fruit flies. The study answers critical questions about how the nervous system processes arousal and may even shed some light on the neurobiology of human affective disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). A state of arousal can be defined as in increase in activity or sensitivity and is central to many behaviors in all sorts of organisms. It has not been fully established whether arousal is a generalized state that can be heightened by specific stimuli or is more multidimensional. Further, although many studies have implicated key neurochemicals in arousal, the specific roles of these neuromodulators are unclear.
FDA Approves VYVANSE CII Label Change To Include Supplementary Clinical Data Supporting Efficacy At 13 Hours Postdose In Children Age 6-12 With ADHD
Shire plc (LSE: SHP, NASDAQ: SHPGY), the global specialty biopharmaceutical company, today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a change to the prescribing information for its once-daily Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) treatment VYVANSE ® (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) CII, to include supplemental data that demonstrated significant ADHD symptom control in children aged 6 to 12 from the first time point measured (1.5 hours) through 13 hours postdose. VYVANSE is now the first and only oral ADHD stimulant treatment to have 13-hour postdose efficacy data for pediatric patients included in its product labeling. "Children with ADHD who still exhibit symptoms into the evening might need a treatment that provides a long duration of effect from morning, through homework and family time, " said Michael Yasick, Senior Vice President of the ADHD Business Unit at Shire. "The FDA approval of this labeling change for VYVANSE provides important additional information for physicians on the duration of effect of VYVANSE and use as a once daily treatment option.
InfoMedics, Inc., the patient feedback company, recently co-authored two posters detailing patients' experiences with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) drug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). The posters were presented at the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists' (CPNP) annual meetings. Both presented data gathered through the Vyvanse New Start Program, which provides information to prescribing physicians about patients' impressions of LDX treatment and its affect on their ADHD symptoms. "The New Start Program is designed to support effective patient-physician communications, " said InfoMedics' Senior Director of Analytic Services Donna Kerney, PhD. "Enhanced communication and brand-specific feedback are enormously helpful to physicians who want to know the impact their prescribed medications have on patients, to the pharmaceutical companies who want to better understand consumers' reactions to their products, and to patients who want their physicians to know how they are doing.
Residential childcare and fostering agency, Perpetual Care, and the University of Central Lancashire's School of Nursing & Caring Sciences are jointly developing an introductory workshop on the ground-breaking Nurtured Heart Approach, which seeks to improve social and educational outcomes for many children and young people. Experts from UCLan and Perpetual are currently designing an awareness workshop, which will provide an overview of the approach, examine existing US research findings and explore its potential role in UK residential childcare and fostering, particularly in the light of revised NICE guidelines relating to children with ADHD. The first session is scheduled at UCLan's Preston campus in late June this year and should be of interest to registered social workers, local authority placement officers and other social care and health professionals concerned with the well-being of challenging young people. "We are delighted to be working with Perpetual Care on this innovative approach, " says Dr Joy Duxbury, Reader in Mental Health Nursing, who is leading the project for UCLan.
FDA Issues Safety Communication About An Ongoing Review Of Stimulant Medications Used In Children With ADHD
There may be an association between the use of stimulant medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, known as ADHD, and sudden cardiac death in healthy children, according to a study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration says that, because of the study's limitations, parents should not stop a child's stimulant medication based on the study. The FDA recommends that parents should discuss concerns about the use of these medications with the prescribing health care professional. The FDA can not conclude that the data in the study affect the overall risk-benefit profile of stimulant medications used to treat ADHD in children. The study's limitations include: --a significant time lag between the dates when the deaths occurred and collection of the data; --the difference in circumstance of death may have accounted for a difference in family or caregiver recall of information relating to medication use at the time of death;
A new study by researchers in the US suggests there may be a link between the use of stimulant drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) and sudden cardiac death in healthy children, but the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who funded the study with the National Institute of Mental Health, said because of its limitations, parents and carers should not stop giving children such medication on the basis of this study but should discuss any concerns with their prescribing doctor. The study was the work of lead author Dr Madelyn S Gould of Columbia University, New York, New York, and colleagues, and is published in the 15 June issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry. In the case-control study, using state-based mortality data from 1985 to 1996, Gould and colleagues compared the use of stimulant drugs in 564 healthy children aged 7 to 19 from across the US who died suddenly and most likely due to sudden cardiac disturbance with a matched group of 564 young people who died as passengers in motor vehicle traffic accidents.
This week, a study came out that scared us big-time ... it suggests that children and teens who take stimulants like Ritalin for ADHD have an increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Our pediatrician weighs in. A new study in The American Journal of Psychiatry suggests that children and teens who take stimulants like Ritalin for ADHD have an increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Researchers collected data on stimulant use among 564 children and teenagers who died unexpectedly of unknown causes and an equal number who died as passengers in auto accidents. Many of the unexplained deaths were later attributed to previously undiagnosed cardiac arrhythmias. They concluded that the odds of using stimulant medication were six to seven times greater among the children who died suddenly of unexplained causes than among those who died in car crashes. The FDA says, "Given the limitations of this study's methodology, the FDA is unable to conclude that these data affect the overall risk-and-benefit profile of stimulant medications used to treat ADHD in children.