The menopause marks the time in a woman's life when her menstruation stops and she is no longer fertile (able to become pregnant). In the UK the average age for the menopause is 52 (National Health Service), while in the USA it is 51 (National Institute of Aging). About one fifth of women in India experience menopause before the age of 41, a study found. The menopause is a normal part of like - it is a milestone, just like puberty - it is not a disease or a condition. Even though it is the time of the woman's last period symptoms may begin many years earlier. Some women may experience symptoms for months or years afterwards. According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, the menopause is the "Permanent cessation of the menses due to ovarian failure;
Older women who take hormone therapy to relieve menopausal symptoms may get the added benefit of reduced body fat if they are physically active, according to a new study. The results were presented at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. The study provides new information on the health benefits of any type of physical activity, not just exercise, said the presenting author Poli Mara Spritzer, MD, PhD, a professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and chief of the Gynecological Endocrinology Unit at the university's Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre. After menopause, a woman's percentage of body fat tends to increase and redistribute to the abdomen, Spritzer said.
The recent decline in invasive breast cancer in the US was significantly less pronounced in the poor and those who live in rural areas. Researchers writing in the open access journal BMC Medicine suggest this may be due to varying reductions in the numbers of women taking hormone therapy (HT). Christina Clarke, Ph.D., led a team of researchers from the Northern California Cancer Center who studied breast cancer incidence data from the largest cancer database available in the US for the years 1997-2004, comparing poor areas against rich and urban areas against rural. She said, "Between 2001 and 2004, incidence rates of invasive breast cancer declined more than 8% in the United States.
Some women take a short break from using postmenopausal hormone therapy before getting their breasts screened for cancer with mammography. They hope to lower their risk of being called back afterward for unnecessary extra breast imaging. But taking a short break from hormones doesn't actually work for this purpose, according to the first large-scale randomized controlled trial to address the question. The READ (Radiological Evaluation and Breast Density) trial of more than 1, 700 Group Health women is in the June 2, 2009 Annals of Internal Medicine. "Postmenopausal hormones make breasts denser - like young women's breasts - and make mammograms harder to 'read, '" explained Diana S.
Identification Of Genetic Variants Affecting Age At Menopause Could Help Improve Fertility Treatment
For the first time, scientists have been able to identify genetic factors that influence the age at which natural menopause occurs in women. Ms Lisette Stolk, a researcher from Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, told the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics that a greater understanding of the factors influencing age at menopause might eventually help to improve the clinical treatment of infertile women. Ms Stolk and her team performed a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in 10, 339 menopausal women. The data analysed were taken from 9 different studies undertaken in The Netherlands (the Rotterdam Study 1 and 2), the UK (the TwinsUK study), USA (the Framingham study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the ARIC study, the HAPI Heart Study), Iceland (AGES-Reykjavik) and Italy (the InCHIANTI study).
The risk of developing breast cancer due to taking hormone replacement therapy appears to be the same for women with a family history of the disease and without a family history, a University of Rochester Medical Center study concluded. The study, published online this week in the journal Epidemiology, adds to the evolving picture of what factors, either alone or in combination, boost breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. It also refutes the notion, held by many in the medical community, that a familial predisposition to breast cancer enhances the carcinogenic effects of estrogen. "Although we know that family history is a risk factor, we don't know yet what it is about family history that conveys the risk, " said Robert E.