A simple test of reaction time may help determine whether athletes have sustained a concussion (also known as mild traumatic brain injury) and when they are ready to play again, according to a study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 62nd Annual Meeting in Toronto April 10 to April 17, 2010. "Research has shown that reaction time is slower after a concussion even as long as several days after other symptoms are gone, " said study author James T. Eckner, MD, of the University of Michigan Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Ann Arbor. "But the tests currently used to measure reaction time require computers and special software.
A randomized multicenter study of 190 patients at 13 medical centers show for the first time the "superior" benefit of stent grafts over balloon angioplasty for maintaining function of dialysis access grafts in kidney failure patients who undergo dialysis. Until now, no other therapy has proven more effective than angioplasty. At six months, the stent grafts allowed dialysis patients to continue life-saving treatment with significantly fewer interruptions and invasive procedures, according to a study published in the Feb. 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. Hemodialysis is the leading treatment for more than 340, 000 patients in the United States with end-stage renal disease or kidney failure.
Arizona State University scientists have come up with a new twist in their efforts to develop a faster and cheaper way to read the DNA genetic code. They have developed the first, versatile DNA reader that can discriminate between DNA's four core chemical components - ithe key to unlocking the vital code behind human heredity and health. Led by ASU Regents' Professor Stuart Lindsay, director of the Biodesign Institute's Center for Single Molecule Biophysics, the ASU team is one of a handful that has received stimulus funds for a National Human Genome Research Initiative, part of the National Institutes of Health, to make DNA genome sequencing as widespread as a routine medical checkup.
The Medical Imaging & Technology Alliance (MITA), the leading association representing the manufacturers, innovators and developers of medical imaging and radiation therapy systems, has endorsed eight key principles to reduce exposure to unnecessary medical radiation, further minimize medical errors and improve reporting of adverse events. "Over the past twenty years innovations by imaging manufacturers have reduced radiation for many procedures by up to 75 percent, " said Dave Fisher, Executive Director of MITA. "MITA and its member companies look forward to working with all who are involved in patients' continuum of care to reduce medical radiation, reduce the number of medical errors and enhance transparency and timeliness of error reporting while also continually improving technology to aid physicians in turning patients into survivors.
Cornel Sultan, assistant professor of aerospace and ocean engineering at Virginia Tech, is the latest faculty member at the university to learn he has received a National Science Foundation (NSF) Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) award. Sultan joins a phenomenal list of more than 70 Virginia Tech CAREER award winners, of which some 60 have been members of the College of Engineering since the award was created in 1994. He will receive some $400, 000 from NSF to help him in his research and teaching endeavors. http://www.aoe.vt.edu/people/faculty.php?fac_id=csultan Sultan, who joined the AOE department in 2007, is looking at biological discoveries to develop new controllable structures that, in engineering terms, have "tensional integrity" or tensegrity.
Material scientists at the Nano/Bio Interface Center of the University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated the transduction of optical radiation to electrical current in a molecular circuit. The system, an array of nano-sized molecules of gold, respond to electromagnetic waves by creating surface plasmons that induce and project electrical current across molecules, similar to that of photovoltaic solar cells. The results may provide a technological approach for higher efficiency energy harvesting with a nano-sized circuit that can power itself, potentially through sunlight. Recently, surface plasmons have been engineered into a variety of light-activated devices such as biosensors.